Cataract surgery – Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Prevention



Cataract surgery is a surgery done in the eye where the lens of your eye is removed and, in most cases, it is replaced with an artificial lens. The eye’s lens is usually transparent. The cloudiness of the lens brought on by a cataract eventually impairs vision.

Cataract surgery is a quick and painless procedure. A hazy lens that impairs vision can be removed through cataract surgery.

Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgery is the most often done surgical treatment compared to other medical surgical procedures. Additionally, it is one of the safest surgical techniques to be done on patients.

The operations for each eye are usually carried out individually if you have cataracts in both of your eyes.

First, you will be given soothing medicine, specialised numbing gel and eye drops so that you won’t feel discomfort during the treatment. In most cases, cataract surgery is conducted while you are awake.

In other words, the removal of the eye’s natural lens (“crystalline lens”), referred to as a cataract, is replaced with an intraocular lens, known as cataract surgery. This surgery is often called “Lens replacement surgery”.  

The development of cataract, which impairs vision, is caused by metabolic changes in the crystalline lens fibres.

Types of Cataract surgery  

Following are the types of cataract surgery.


Phacoemulsification, shortly referred to as ‘phaco’, is a technique of cataract surgery in which the intraocular lens is implanted to replace the emulsified internal lens of the eye.

Phacoemulsification is the most widely used method in cataract surgery. Patients with cataract (clouding of the eye’s lens) can have cataract surgery to restore their eyesight.

Modern cataract surgery techniques include phacoemulsification, which involves emulsifying the eye’s internal lens with an ultrasonic handpiece and aspirating it out of the eye. To maintain the anterior chamber, aspirated fluids are replenished with irrigation of a balanced salt solution.

Extracapsular cataract surgery  

Extracapsular cataract surgery aims to restore clear vision by removing the cloudy and discoloured lens and replacing it with other lenses.

In this surgery, the eye’s natural lens is removed, but the back of the capsule that holds the lens in place is left intact. Phacoemulsification is a modified form of extracapsular cataract surgery involving a much smaller incision and no complex surgery.

Symptoms of Cataract surgery

Blurry vision

After having cataract surgery, some patients may experience clear vision within a day. Others can experience hazy vision for a few days. After a few weeks of cataract surgery, if your vision is still blurry, make an appointment with your ophthalmologist to rule out any potential complications.

Many cataract patients notice a good improvement in their eyesight within 48 hours. It’s conceivable that your vision will take one to two weeks to adjust and stabilise.  


After surgery, dyphotopsia (unwanted visual images) commonly occurs in cataract patients. Examples of positive dysphotopsia include glare, halos and light streaks. Glare is very common in people with multifocal lenses and tends to happen at night or in low light.

Causes of Cataract


According to some research, cataract surgery on diabetes patients may cause iris neovascularisation and ultimately impair vision.

Diabetic people can still receive excellent results from cataract surgery but are more likely to experience problems and subsequently have vision defects.


Corticosteroids have been shown to reduce postoperative pain, prevent inflammation and speed the recovery of visual acuity after cataract surgery.

To achieve the best results and satisfy patients, both steroidal and nonsteroidal therapies must be appropriately used during cataract surgery. Corticosteroids have been utilised in ophthalmology to treat ocular inflammation.

Phenothiazine drugs  

It is said that using either antipsychotic or other phenothiazine medications raised the chance of cataract extraction by about 3.5 times.

According to reports, antipsychotic medications such as phenothiazine derivatives, dibenzyl derivatives, and others might cause cataracts, also known as phenothiazine-induced cataracts.


Abstinence from alcohol prevents dehydration of your eyes and ensures that your body’s healing process can function properly. Overconsumption of alcohol damages the eye lens, which ends in cataract.

Family history  

Some people have cataracts from birth. These cataracts may be hereditary or linked to an infection or injury within the uterus. Additionally, certain diseases like myotonic dystrophy, galactosemia, neurofibromatosis type 2 or rubella are the reasons for these cataracts.

Typically, cataracts cannot be prevented, especially if they are hereditary. However, general causes of cataract in short- age trauma metabolic drugs.

Side effects of Cataract surgery

Discomfort like irritation and glare for few days

A person who had undergone cataract surgery may experience discomfort like glare and irritation for few days.

Eye infection

During surgery, germs that enter your eye could cause an infection. You can have pain, redness and visual issues as a result of this. In case you experience this, make a quick call to your doctor.

When to see a doctor?  

You can consult a doctor in case of the following conditions.

  • Poor eye vision
  • Driving at night is difficult (Difficulty in driving at night)
  • Double vision
  • Clouding in the eyes
  • Frequent eye irritation
  • Eye redness


A cataract is a clouded lens that impairs vision. Cataract surgery is the most recommended eye operation to remove a cataract. The procedure has a high success rate and is quick and painless. Surgery for a cataract seldom results in complications.

After cataract surgery, take care of your eye as directed by your doctor, making sure to use prescribed eye drops. A weeks recovery period is necessary after cataract surgery. You’ll discover that your vision is significantly clearer and that you may resume your favourite hobbies.


Who removes cataracts?

Ophthalmologists (eye doctors) do cataract surgery on an outpatient basis, so you don’t need to stay in the hospital following the procedure. Surgery to remove cataracts is quite common and typically safe.

Is cataract surgery safe?

Yes, cataract surgery is safe and due to advancements in modern-day treatment, this surgery can be done within a short time and is very safe.

After surgery is there a need to use glass?

It depends on the Intra ocular lens chosen . Except for multifocal IOL others will require reading glass.

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