What causes lower abdominal pain in females?

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Lower abdominal pain in women is a common health condition that affects women. Abdominal pain is the pain in your tummy area below your belly button. Sometimes it is also known as pelvic pain.

There are several causes of abdominal pain in women. It ranges from menstrual cramps to intestinal disorders. It is mostly a common phenomenon that affects adult women of all age groups.

However, some causes can be severe, and it is better to consult a doctor as soon as possible. Knowing about some of these conditions will help you prevent and control them.

What causes lower abdominal pain in females?

The lower abdomen is an area where various organs are crowded next to each other. So, pain in different areas of your abdomen could be caused by different reasons.

  • Pain in the lower abdomen

The pain in the lower abdomen and back in females is one of the common unpleasant feelings they undergo. The lower abdomen has two major organs in women — the bowel and the uterus.

So, if you feel pain in your lower abdomen, it will be due to some uncomfortable issues with these organs.

  • Menstrual cramps

These are the pains you experience during your menstruation period or simply period. In some women, the pain will be much more intense. This is called Dysmenorrhea.

This pain in your lower abdomen often even spreads to your back. In some cases, it may cause even nausea, headache and diarrhoea.

It is common for us to take painkillers in such situations. But, continuous dosage of painkillers may lead to some undesirable side effects.

However, this pain can be controlled in the following ways:

  1. Apply heat to your lower abdomen using a hot water bottle or a heating pad.
  2. Massage your abdomen with essential oils such as lavender, fennel, rose, etc.
  3. Avoid fatty foods, caffeine, alcohol and carbonated drinks during your menstrual periods.
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)

Our urinary system is generally designed to fight external infections by microorganisms. But sometimes, these defences might fall, and some infectious bacteria may enter your urinary system.

Urinary Tract Infection

This goes up and causes infections called Urinary tract infection (UTI)that can lead to pain in your lower abdomen.

Sometimes, these infections can be mild and go away by consuming lots of fluids and water. But it can also be severe and might even affect your kidneys as well.

Severe UTI leads to chronic pain on both sides of your lower abdomen.

UTI can be controlled and prevented by:

  1. Drinking plenty of fluids, including water
  2. Drinking cranberry juice (although there is no conclusive study, many women recommended this)
  3. Avoid using products that cause potential skin irritation, such as deodorants, powders, etc.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease is caused due to infection in a woman’s reproductive organs. It occurs due to sexually transmitted bacteria from the vagina to the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes.

For mild infections, you wouldn’t feel anything. But as the infection spreads, there may be severe pain in the lower abdomen area. It is advisable to see a doctor before it becomes severe.

Pain in the lower left abdomen

Some may experience continuous pain in the left side of the abdomen. The left side of your lower abdomen houses the colon and the ovary.

Most often, the problems in digestion cause pain in your lower left side of the abdomen. However, there may be some peculiar causes for the pain in your abdomen.

  • Gas (flatulence)

You may swallow excessive air unintentionally that ends up in your lower left side of the abdomen. Also, during the digestion process, gas is released as a byproduct when gut bacteria break down the food. Gas will also accumulate when you intake gas-producing foods.

A small amount of gas will not cause any problem. However, when the limits exceed, you may feel some undesirable pain in the left side of your abdomen.

  • Diverticular disease

When there are small bulges in your colon wall, it is referred to as Diverticular disease. These lumps, when they grow, cause pain in your abdomen. It may also lead to diarrhoea and bleeding.

When you have prolonged lower abdominal pain and witness either blood in your stool or darkly pigmented stool, it is time for you to go and see a doctor.

Lower right abdomen

When you experience pain in your lower right abdomen, it may be due to some issues with your appendix. It is a small part situated at the beginning of your large intestine.

Some other causes of lower abdominal pain

  • Muscular pain

Sometimes abdominal pain is caused because of strain in your abdominal muscles. Apart from injury, one can harm abdominal muscles by doing workouts.

Especially when you do abs and squats workouts, you tend to stress your abdominal muscles, which results in pain.

  • Pregnancy pain

Pregnancy is a beautiful yet energy-consuming phenomenon. It changes a woman’s body structure. It causes stress and strain in a woman’s organs and muscles, especially in the lower abdomen.

Pregnancy pain

A woman’s abdomen muscles adjust themselves at later stages of pregnancy for childbirth. This stresses and contracts the muscles, which is painful around that area.

It is not serious most of the time, but if you feel severe pain or vaginal discharge/bleeding, quickly consult your doctor.

  • Ectopic pregnancy

When the female’s fertilised egg gets implanted outside the womb, the condition is Ectopic pregnancy. Mostly, the egg gets planted in fallopian tubes.

Mostly, the egg will not develop into a baby in such a situation. But if it develops, it will pose a serious risk to the pregnant woman. This causes mild to chronic pain in the female’s abdomen area.

In such conditions, it is highly advisable to consult a doctor and get the necessary treatment as soon as possible.

In conclusion

Generally, abdominal pain is common among women. But what causes lower abdominal pain in females is the key question that needs to be looked upon.

Most of the causes can be tackled by simple home remedies and a healthy diet. While some reasons can be severe medical conditions that may require immediate diagnosis and treatment.

Hence it is highly recommended that you visit your nearest hospital with prolonged pain in your lower abdomen.


The Information including but not limited to text, graphics, images and other material contained on this blog are intended for education and awareness only. No material on this blog is intended to be a substitute for professional medical help including diagnosis or treatment. It is always advisable to consult medical professional before relying on the content. Neither the Author nor Star Health and Allied Insurance Co. Ltd accepts any responsibility for any potential risk to any visitor/reader.

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