Vision – Blindness, types and prevention

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Eye and vision 

One of the most complex organs present in the body is the eyes. Various components of the eyes work together to produce vision.

To understand vision, it is essential to understand the parts of the eye.

The major parts of the eye are:

  • Cornea
  • Tear ducts
  • Iris
  • Pupil
  • Retina
  • Lens 
  • Optic nerve

The cornea is a layer of tissues present in the front of the eye which focuses on light. 

The tear ducts are present in the upper or lower eyelids. Tears are secreted by the gland present on the outer surface of the eye. 

Iris is the coloured part present in the eye. The iris controls the pupil. Iris is responsible for filtering the light coming through the pupil. 

Behind the pupil, the lens is present. The light passing through the pupil is focused by the lens into the retina. This light is converted into electrical signals and sent into the optic nerve. 

The optic nerve comprises a bundle of nerves attached to the back of the eye, which transforms information from the retina to the brain as electric signals. 

When the light is not focused properly, it leads to blurry vision. 

What is blindness?

Blindness means the lack of ability to see anything. When a person is partially blind, they have limited vision. When a person is fully blind, they lose their ability to see anything, including light. 

What are the symptoms exhibited due to blindness? 

If a person is partially blind or completely blind, they may experience the following symptoms.

  • Blurry vision
  • Unable to see shapes
  • Improper night vision
  • Visualizing only as shadows
  • Tunnel vision

To identify the visual impairment in young children, we need to understand that there are a few other symptoms like

  • Sensitivity to light
  • Continuous eye rubbing
  • Redness in the eyes
  • White colour pupil
  • Abnormal eye alignment

How is blindness caused?

Blindness can be caused due to the following conditions: 

1. Cataract 

Cataracts cause cloudy vision; they’re usually found in older people. 

2. Glaucoma 

Glaucoma – an eye condition that damages the optic nerves. 

3. Macular degeneration 

Wet macular degeneration is a chronic eye condition that causes blurred vision or a blind spot in your visual field. It causes abnormal blood vessels, leaking fluid or blood into the macula. The macula is located in the area of the retina that is responsible for central vision.

4. Optic neuritis 

Optic neuritis is the inflammation that causes permanent or temporary vision loss.

5. Lazy eye

A lazy eye makes it difficult for a person to see details, which would lead to vision loss.

Some of the other causes of blindness are

  • Diabetes
  • Stroke
  • Birth defect
  • Injuries 
  • Complications due to surgery 
  • Pink eye
  • Blocked tear ducts 

Diagnosing blindness 

An ophthalmologist will examine the eye and understand the cause of blindness. 

They examine the overall health of the eyes using a slit lamp. 

The test will give a series of results that provides clarity about,

  • The vision 
  • Functions of eye muscles
  • The reaction of the pupil.

How to treat blindness?

Blindness can be treated in some ways. Vision impairment can be treated with the following: 

  • Surgery
  • Eyeglasses
  • Contact lenses 
  • Medication

Partial blindness can be corrected based on a professional’s medical advice. Complete blindness requires a different approach. 

Complete blindness can be irreversible. It requires various methods of coping with and living with it. 


  • Read using braille
  • Using guide dogs
  • Finding ways to organize the home
  • Using adapt to products specialized for blind people.

Can we prevent blindness?

Detecting eye diseases and infections that cause vision loss is important. A medical professional would help diagnose eye health and provide necessary treatment or medications. 

If an individual encounters any of the symptoms mentioned above of vision loss, an appointment with the professional is immediately mandatory. 

Even though some vision loss or blindness is irreversible, some symptoms can be contained and treated. 

For all people the sight is the most important of all senses. It is essential to care for our eyes.

To sum up 

The best method to prevent eye problems is to prevent them from progressing. 

Making appointments and visiting the doctor regularly to examine the eye and identify any symptoms. Medical assistance is required depending on the severity of the condition. 

Vision loss is either complete or partially temporary, or irreversible. It can be difficult to cope with vision loss. Healthcare providers would help people adopt appropriate resources and manage their health conditions. 

Even though preventing vision loss is impossible, people can take various steps to look after their eye health. It is always recommended to consider a medical professional for proper advice. 


The Information including but not limited to text, graphics, images and other material contained on this blog are intended for education and awareness only. No material on this blog is intended to be a substitute for professional medical help including diagnosis or treatment. It is always advisable to consult medical professional before relying on the content. Neither the Author nor Star Health and Allied Insurance Co. Ltd accepts any responsibility for any potential risk to any visitor/reader.

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